I recently had a few folks knock on my front door not to long ago to introduce themselves and their convictions and I decided to engage a little for about a half hour on some of our differences between our faiths. One conviction that cropped up was the disagreement on the trinity. To be really clear up front, what I’m going to share is my own personal view on it as I am going to be incredibly uneducated based on the studies and pedigrees of experts. But I’m responding nonetheless as my experience was really practical and stands out in relation to your questions. So, without further adieu:
The case from my visitors against the doctrine of the trinity was most specifically with the role of the Spirit (which I assume is a gateway into other breakdowns) in that the Spirit is more of the “verb” of God; his expression of movement. The references they mentioned were most notably drawn in our conversation from verses like “The Spirit of God hovered over the waters,” and “…the spirit of God moved…” (I apologize for not having scripture references and pulling them out in this fashion but I’ve struggled with the discipline of rote memorization). They were action oriented.
Respectfully, I asked them then to tell me how they interpret verses that explain more of a “person-hood” of the the spirit of God, such as when Christ promises the coming of a “helper” to the disciples after he has gone. What ensued was a discussion on how the actions (or spirit according to their understanding) of God help mankind and therefore is considered a helper in the same way, for example, that raining (action) is a help to the gardener. Most verses that are affiliated with the person-hood of the trinity when it comes to the spirit can, unfortunately, in my opinion, be subject to their interpretation. But a few stand out and for me, 1 John 5:6 specifically. Because it gets a the nature of the person-hood of the spirit of God, as characterized by truth.
To me, this is a major qualifier in understanding the person-likeness of the Spirit, not in the sense that truth is not a part of the Father or the Son, but rather that the essence of the person of the Spirit is characterized by truth itself. The notion of Identity, which is foundational to person-hood, is located in truth as the identity of the Spirit of God. There are correlating repercussions that show the evidence of the Spirit (ie, the fruits of the Spirit) and these would be the results from what “THE SPIRIT HIMSELF” does, or acts upon when cultivated. The Spirit of God doesn’t act upon the truth because the Spirit of God IS the truth.
Ultimately, from this experience with me, because the term Spirit in the scriptures CAN be interpreted as the “actions” of God does not actually mean that God’s Spirit IS ONLY action. To me, from this, The Spirit of God IS TRUTH and therefore HAS AN IDENTITY, and therefore, has a persona. It is of the Essence and Substance of God in it’s unity to the Father and Son, but it is also Distinct as it has an Identity.
PS - A similar (but different) correlation would be to how the poets personify WISDOM in the proverbs or God Himself recalling Wisdom being nearby when we created. “Wisdom has an identity and she is known, by her children.”
Hope it helps your processing, sorry if it ends up just being more confusing