Good question! Something that I have wondered but not really looked into and had an opportunity to do so now. The theory of Hindu yugas is based on the understanding that ‘Time is cyclical’ but modern physics and Bible both point to time being linear. By some Puranic calculations the life span of the universe is 311 trillion years and we are currently at about 155 trillion human years. There seems to be a debate on the calculations of the age of the Hindu universe, some interpretations also say that the universe is destroyed every 4.32 billion years. (I found the calculations for the Hindu age of universe here.) So we have two points of testing for evidence, namely concept of time as linear and age of the universe. From the resources I have found by well known apologists, it seems like physics does not support the hindu view of time.
Hugh Ross provides the following reasons why the Hindu view of time lacks scientific support. You can read the full article here
Belief in reincarnation is founded on the Hindu doctrine that the entire universe experiences reincarnation. The Hindu Vedas state that the universe goes through an infinite number of cycles of births, deaths, and rebirths where the cyclical period is 4.32 billion years. As I explain in my book The Creator and the Cosmos ,1 this Hindu doctrine is refuted at two points. Since there is overwhelming evidence that the universe has been continually expanding for 13.79±0.05 billion years, the Vedas are incorrect about the universe lasting only 4.32 billion years. They also are mistaken about the universe being able to restart itself. The universe lacks by a factor of 100 million times the necessary, low-enough entropy measure to permit the possibility of a future restart or rebound.
Just as the laws of physics and the characteristics of the universe make cosmic reincarnation impossible, they also rule out the possibility that an animal can experience multiple millions of reincarnations. Depending on the species of the animal, there is a limited time window during which animals can exist either on Earth or in the universe. The universe was not habitable for any kind of animal life until less than a billion years ago. It will cease to be habitable in much less than a billion years hence.
The more advanced the animal life-form, the narrower the time window during which such life-forms can exist. For animals as advanced as humans, the time window is only a few million years wide. Thus, the tenet that animals proceed through an uncountable number of reincarnations, on the basis of the physics and features of the universe, is false.
Is time cyclical?
Here’s another resource that you may find useful from Cold Case Christianity. From this article there seems to be no scientific support for cyclical view of time.
Alexander Vilenkin, theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and professor of Physics and Director of the Institute of Cosmology at Tufts University is not a theist, but he rejects eternal inflation, cyclical, and emergent models. In 2012 he authored a scientific paper with Audrey Mithani entitled, “Did the Universe Have a Beginning?” He examined “…three candidate scenarios which seem to allow the possibility that the universe could have existed forever with no initial singularity: eternal inﬂation, cyclic evolution, and the emergent universe.” Here’s what he concluded: “The ﬁrst two of these scenarios are geodesically incomplete to the past, and thus cannot describe a universe without a beginning. The third, although it is stable with respect to classical perturbations, can collapse quantum mechanically, and therefore cannot have an eternal past.” Not only does Vilenkin’s work address (and eliminate) all the eternal inflation, cyclical and emergent models, it also excludes any future proposals in which the expansion of the universe is acknowledged.
You may want to ask your friend about the evidence for his view of time. Personally, I can’t really sort out the complex theories of physics. I just find that the idea of repeated creation and destruction allows for little intrinsic worth for us humans and gives little meaning to this beautiful creation of God.
May God guide you in your discussions. Seems like you are often in conversations with hindus.